Chapter 15

An assignment from Mr. Tri Djoko Wahjono Ir., M.S

Text Book : Discovering Computer 2011
Chapter : Computer Careers and Certification

  1. What Career Opportunities Are Available in the Computer Industry?
    3D Animation or Graphic design : A position where you design and create either a graphic or 3D animations for software programs, games, movies, web pages, etc. Position may also require that you work on existing graphics, animations, movies, etc. done by other people.
    Customer service : Helping customers with general questions relating to the company, ordering, status on orders, account information or status, etc.
    Data Entry : A job that commonly requires the employee to take information from a hard copy or other source and enter it into an electronic format. Position may also be taking electronic data and entering it into a database for easy sorting and locating.
    Database : A job that requires creating, testing, and maintaining one or more database.
    Electronics technician or engineer Continue reading

Chapter 14

An assignment from Mr. Tri Djoko Wahjono Ir., M.S

Text Book : Discovering Computer 2011
Chapter : Enterprise Computing

  1. What Are the Special Information Requirements of an Enterprise-Sized Corporation?
    A large organization, or enterprise, requires special computing solutions because of its size and geographical extent. Enterprise computing involves the use of computers in networks, such as LANs and WANs, or a series of interconnected networks to satisfy the information needs of an enterprise. Executive management, which includes the highest management positions in a company, needs information to make strategic decisions. Middle management, which is responsible for implementing the strategic decisions of executive management, needs information to make tactical decisions. Operational management, which supervises the production, clerical, and other non-management employees, needs information to make an operational decision that involves day-to-day activities. Non-management employees also need information to perform their jobs and make decisions. Managers use business intelligence (BI), business process management (BPM), and business process automation (BPA ) tools to focus on information that is important to the decision-making process. Continue reading

Chapter 13

An assignment from Mr. Tri Djoko Wahjono Ir., M.S

Text Book : Discovering Computer 2011
Chapter : Programming Languages and Program Development

  1. How Are Machine Languages Different from Assembly Languages?
    Two types of low-level languages are machine languages and assembly languages. Machine language, known as the first generation of programming languages, is the only language the computer directly recognizes. Machine language instructions use a series of binary digits or a combination of numbers and letters that represents binary digits. The binary digits correspond to the on and off electrical states. As you might imagine, coding in machine language is tedious and time-consuming. With an assembly language, the second generation of programming languages, a programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes. Symbolic instruction codes are meaningful abbreviations. With an assembly language, a programmer writes abbreviations such as A for addition, C for compare, L for load and M for multiply. Assembly languages also use symbolic addresses. A symbolic address is a meaningful name that identifies a storage location. For example, a programmer can use the name RATE to refer to the storage location that contains a pay rate.
  2. What Is the Purpose of Procedural Programming Languages and What Are the Features of C and COBOL?
    The disadvantages of machine and assembly (low-level) languages led to the development of procedural languages in the late 1950s and 1960s. In a procedural language, the programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it. With a procedural language, or third generation language (3GL), a programmer writes instructions that tell a computer what to accomplish and how to do it. Programmers use English-like words to write instructions, which simplify the program development process for the programmer. A compiler or an interpreter translates the 3GL source program into machine language object code or object program that a computer can execute. Standard procedural languages include C and COBOL. C is a powerful language that requires professional programming skills and is used for business and scientific problems. It runs on almost any type of computer or operating system. COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language) is a programming language designed for business applications that uses English-like statements that are easy to read, write, and maintain.
    Continue reading

Chapter 12

An assignment from Mr. Tri Djoko Wahjono Ir., M.S

Text Book : Discovering Computer 2011
Chapter : Information System Development

  1. What Is System Development, and What Are the System Development Phases?
    An information system (IS) is hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce quality information. System development is a set of activities used to build an information system. Some system development activities may be performed concurrently. Others are performed sequentially. Depending on the type and complexity of the information system, the length of each activity varies from one system to the next. In some cases, some activities are skipped entirely. System development activities often are grouped into larger categories called phases. This collection of phases sometimes is called the system development life cycle (SDLC). Many SDLCs contain five phases:
    – planning,
    – analysis,
    – design,
    – implementation,
    – operation, support, and security.
    Continue reading

Chapter 11

An assignment from Mr. Tri Djoko Wahjono Ir., M.S

Text Book : Discovering Computer 2011
Chapter : Computer Security and Safety, Ethics, and Privacy

  1. What Are Computer Security Risks, and What Are the Types of Cybercrime Perpetrators?
    A computer security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware, software, data, information, or processing capability. Any illegal act involving a computer is a computer crime; the term cybercrime refers to online or Internet-based illegal acts. Perpetrators of cybercrime include: hacker, cracker, script kiddie, corporate spy, unethical employee, cyberextortionist, and cyberterrorist.
  2. What Are Various Internet and Network Attacks, and How Can Users Safeguard against These Attacks?
    Information transmitted over networks has a higher degree of security risk than information kept on an organization’s premises. In an organization, network administrators usually take measures to protect a network from security risks. On the Continue reading

Chapter 10

An assignment from Mr. Tri Djoko Wahjono Ir., M.S

Text Book : Discovering Computer 2011
Chapter : Database Management

1.   What Is a Database, and How Does a Database Interact with Data and Information?

A database is a collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and use of that data. Database software, often called a database management system (DBMS), allows users to create a computerized database; add, modify, and delete the data; sort and retrieve the data; and create forms and reports from the data. Data is a collection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video. Computers process data into information. Information is processed data; that is, it is organized, meaningful, and useful. In addition to documents, information can be in the form of audio, images, and video.

2.   What Is Data Integrity, and Continue reading

Chapter 9

An assignment from Mr. Tri Djoko Wahjono Ir., M.S

Text Book : Discovering Computer 2011
Chapter : Communications and Networks

1.   What Is the Purpose of the Components Required for Successful Communications, and What Are Various Sending and Receiving Devices?

Computer communications describes a process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information. Successful communications requires a sending device that initiates a transmission instruction, a communications device that connects the sending device to a communications channel, a communications channel on which the data travels, a communications device that connects the communications channel to a receiving device, and a receiving device that accepts the transmission of data, instructions, or information. All types of computers and mobile devices serve as sending and receiving devices in a communications system.  Continue reading

Chapter 8

An assignment from Mr. Tri Djoko Wahjono Ir., M.S

Text Book : Discovering Computer 2011
Chapter : Operating Systems and Utility Programs

1.   What Is System Software, and What Are the Two Types of System Software?

System software consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of a computer and its devices. Two types of system software are operating systems and utility programs. An operating system (OS) is a set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources. A computer must have at least one kind of operating system, so that it can be used to operate the instructions. A utility program, also called a utility, performs maintenance-type tasks, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs.

2.   What Are the Functions of an Operating System?

Continue reading

Chapter 7

An assignment from Mr. Tri Djoko Wahjono Ir., M.S

Text Book : Discovering Computer 2011
Chapter : Storage

1.   How Are Storage Devices Different from Storage Media?

A storage media is the physical material on which a computer keeps data, instructions, and information. The number of bytes (characters) a storage medium can hold is its capacity. Meanwhile, a storage device is the computer hardware that records and/or retrieves items to and from storage media. Writing is the process of transferring items from memory to a storage medium, and reading is the process of transferring these items from a storage medium into memory.

2.   What Are the Characteristics of an Internal Hard Disk?

A hard disk, also called a hard disk drive or hard drive, is a storage device that contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that use magnetic particles to store data, instructions, and information. Usually, hard disks stored data using longitudinal recording, which aligned the magnetic particles horizontally. With perpendicular recording, hard disks align the particles vertically, making much greater storage capacities possible. The capacity of a hard disk is determined from whether it uses longitudinal or perpendicular recording, the number of platters it contains, and the composition of the magnetic coating on the platters.
A platter is Continue reading

Chapter 6

An assignment from Mr. Tri Djoko Wahjono Ir., M.S

Text Book : Discovering Computer 2011
Chapter : Output

1.   What Are the Four Types of Output?

Output is data, that previously has being inputted by the user, which has been processed into a useful form. Computers process data (input) into information (output). Four categories of output are text, graphics, audio, and video. An output device is any hardware component that conveys information to one or more people. Commonly used output devices include display devices; printers; speakers, headphones, and earbuds; data projectors; interactive whiteboards; and force-feedback game controllers and tactile output.

2.   What Are the Characteristics of Various Display Devices?

A display device, or simply display, is an output device that visually conveys text, graphics, and video information and consists of a screen and the components that produce the information on the screen. Desktop computers typically use a monitor as their display device; most mobile computers and devices integrate the display into the same physical case. LCD monitors, LCD screens, and plasma monitors are types of flat-panel displays. A flatpanel display is a lightweight display device with a shallow depth that typically uses LCD or gas plasma technology. An LCD monitor is a desktop monitor that uses a liquid crystal display to produce images. A plasma monitor is a display device that uses gas plasma technology, which substitutes a layer of gas for the liquid crystal material in an LCD monitor. A CRT monitor is a desktop monitor that contains a cathode-ray tube (CRT). CRT monitors take up more desk space and thus are not used much today. Continue reading